European Urology Today: June/July 2023

Conflict of interest The research team declared that they have no competing interest or relationship, financial or otherwise, or personal, religious, or political beliefs that might be perceived as influencing an investigator’s objectivity. References 1. Abrams, P. et al. (2003) ‘The standardisation of termi- nology in lower urinary tract function: report from the standardisation sub-committee of the International Continence Society’, Urology, 61(1), pp. 37–49. Available at: 2. Avery, K. et al. (2004) ‘ICIQ: A brief and robust measure for evaluating the symptoms and impact of urinary incontinence’, Neurourology and Urodynamics, 23(4), pp. 322–330. Available at: 3. Basak, T., Kok, G. and Guvenc, G. (2013) ‘Prevalence, risk factors and quality of life in Turkish women with urinary incontinence: a synthesis of the literature’, Internatio- nal Nursing Review, 60(4), pp. 448–460. Available at: 4. Batmani, S. et al. (2021) ‘Prevalence and factors related to urinary incontinence in older adults women worldwi- de: a comprehensive systematic review and meta-ana- lysis of observational studies’, BMC Geriatrics, 21(1), p. 212. Available at: 5. Bedretdinova, D. et al. (2016) ‘Prevalence of Female Uri- nary Incontinence in the General Population According to Different Definitions and Study Designs’, European Urology, 69(2), pp. 256–264. Available at: 6. Bo, K. et al. (2017) ‘An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for the conservative and nonpharmacological management of female pelvic floor dysfunction’, Neurourology and Urodynamics, 36(2), pp. 221–244. Available at: 7. Buckley, B.S. and Lapitan, M.C.M. (2010) ‘Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence in Men, Women, and Children—Cur- rent Evidence: Findings of the Fourth International Con- sultation on Incontinence’, Urology, 76(2), pp. 265–270. Available at: 8. Delgado-Rodríguez, M. and Llorca, J. (2004) ‘Bias’, Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 58(8), pp.

2023. The EAUN budget will be allocated for the support of the study.

635–641. Available at: 9. Fincopp - Federazione Italiana Incontinenti e Disfunzioni pavimento pelvico (2022) FINCOPP. Available at: (Accessed: 27 November 2022). 10. Gacci, M. et al. (2022) ‘European Association of Urology Guidelines on Male Urinary Incontinence’, European Urology, 82(4), pp. 387–398. Available at: 11. Goren, A., Zou, K. H., Gupta, S., & Chen, C. (2014). Direct and indirect cost of urge urinary incontinence with and without pharmacotherapy. International Journal of

A survey will collect demographic and clinical characteristics using standardised data entry forms. All the data will be collected based on a series of variables derived from an accurate review of the UI predictors, costs, and quality of life of the women affected (Goren et al. , 2014; Harding et al. , 2023). The information included the following: • Demographics (age, ethnicity, level of education, and body mass index) • Presence of comorbidity (diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, anxiety, depression and asthma); • Pelvic or uro-gynaecological surgery undergone • Incidence of menopause • Parity • Lifestyle factors • UI prevalence and symptomatology (frequency, quantity, type of urine leakage, time of onset urine leakage) • UI quality of life (social impact and interference with sexual life) • Costs (work productivity, weekly costs of hygiene care products, and healthcare-resource utilisation) The Italian version of the International Consultation of Incontinence Modular Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ UI-SF) (Avery et al., 2004; Tubaro et al., 2006) will be used to investigate the urological symptoms in women and to screen the different subtypes of incontinence. The questionnaire is not gender-dependent and allows the assessment of the prevalence, frequency, and perceived cause of UI and its impact on everyday life. The questionnaire comprises four questions centred on the frequency of UI, the amount of leakage, the overall impact of UI and a self- diagnostic item. The ICIQ-UI-SF scale is appropriate for estimating national prevalence in representative samples (Bedretdinova et al., 2016). This prevalence study should give us more information about UI in middle-aged women living in the Milan metropolitan area and will allow us to make new individualised pathways. The research

Clinical Practice, 68(3), 336–348.

12. Hammad, F.T. (2021) ‘Prevalence, social impact and help-seeking behaviour among women with urinary incontinence in the Gulf countries: A systematic review’, European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Repro- ductive Biology, 266, pp. 150–156. Available at: 13. Harding, C. K., Lapitan, M. C., Arlandis, S., Bø, K., Cobus- sen-Boekhorst, H., Costantini, E., Groen, J., Nambiar, A. K., Omar, M. I., Peyronnet, B., Phé, V., & van der Vaart, C. H. (2023). EAU Guidelines on Management of Non-Neurogenic Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms. European Association of Urology. 14. Hoy, D. et al. (2012) ‘Assessing risk of bias in prevalence studies: modification of an existing tool and evidence of interrater agreement’, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 65(9), pp. 934–939. Available at: 15. Irwin, D.E. et al. (2006) ‘Population-Based Survey of Uri- nary Incontinence, Overactive Bladder, and Other Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Five Countries: Results of the EPIC Study’, European Urology, 50(6), pp. 1306–1315. Available at: 16. Leboeuf-Yde, C. and Lauritsen, J.M. (1995) ‘The pre- valence of low back pain in the literature. A structured review of 26 Nordic studies from 1954 to 1993’, Spine, 20(19), pp. 2112–2118. Available at: The complete reference list of this article is available from the EUT Editorial Office. Please send an e-mail to: with reference to the article “A crucial prevalence study on female UI conducted in Milan” by Dr. G. Villa, June/July issue 2023.

Dr. Giulia Villa receives the Prize for the Best EAUN Nursing Research Project from EAUN Chair Mrs. Paula Allchorne in Milan

team comprises different healthcare professionals such as nurses and midwives, because UI is multifactorial and requires a multi-professional approach. Every healthcare professional represents an additional contribution to this study because he/she can see the UI from different points of view according to his/her expertise and skills. In addition, this study will be the first of other future studies about UI: a qualitative study exploring the living experiences with UI and a systematic review of non-pharmacological treatment for UI will be planned. “Although UI is a discussed literature topic, it is an underestimated problem.” The research team will continue investigating this disease, searching for new strategies and methods to treat the UI with non-pharmacological interventions (including mindfulness-based and cognitive-behavioural-based interventions). After the monocentre first period, this study could be expanded to become a multicentre prevalence study to evaluate the phenomenon better and investigate the prevalence in a larger population.

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European Urology Today June/July 2023


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